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Non Toxic Finishes

Or to finish or not to finish      ”

As we build smaller and smaller homes, tiny houses and micro homes, the materials that are used in that home becomes increasingly more important. In a 2600 sqft home, there is considerably more space for some toxins to dissipate into the environment. The parts per million of these toxins becomes small on that scale, and don’t get me wrong – they are still there wrecking havoc on ones immune systems. The long term effects, just like inhaling second hand smoke can be more deadly that smoking it seems.

In a tiny house, the overall space is considerably smaller, and therefore small amounts of toxins will impact ones environmental sensitiveness faster. And the very last step is where one can introduce toxins to the home; in wall coverings, paints, floor finishes, stains, and sealers.

We have noticed that one of the favorites in finishing woods by painters is polyurethanes. However, that is not the best coating to apply, it may be easier, and yet it is not a safe coating.

Polyurethane – Has been notoriously toxic. Most always related to a plastic in some form or another. Even the waterborne polyurethane can be very dangerous. The process of burning polyurethane has been known to cause dioxin to be created. Dioxin is one of the most poisonous substances on earth. Some good chemistry based descriptions can be found here about polyurethane production. There are tons of great uses for polyurethane but it doesn’t biodegrade well and it’s poison to burn.

The best thing about polyurethane, is how hard it gets. It gets harder than most other coatings. It is appropriate for industrial use occasionally. There are some high solids polyurethanes for industrial use but these are expensive and must be applied with special care. We don’t suggest poly for residential use or for small businesses. Coating wood in this plastic seems like a waste since it looks poor and fails quickly outdoors. There is simply too high a price paid envirosocially, for the few benefits of polyurethane. Natural wood finishes are much better choices.

We have used poly in the past, and do not use or recommend it for the home or office. We also stay away from other petro-based products for interior coatings.

2 of the products/methods we suggest using are Tung Oil or a Walnut Oil Beeswax Finish. We will discuss Tung oil in part 1.

Finishing with Tung Oil

TUNG OIL HISTORY: Pure Tung Oil was and is one of the first truely “Green” finishes. It is all natural and contains zero VOC’s. Pure Tung oil (China wood oil) is a all natural finishing product that provides a tough, flexible and highly water-resistant coating. It is classed as a drying oil along with linseed, poppy seed, safflower seed, walnut, soybean, oiticica and a few other oils. Although it is relatively new to the Western world, tung oil also known as chinawood oil has been known for centuries to the Chinese, and until this century, China was the main source for the oil. It comes from the seed of the tung trees, Aleurites fordii and Aleurites montana, deciduous trees that are very susceptible to frost damage. This vulnerability has restricted the cultivation of the tung trees to China and South America. Tung oil (china wood oil) received wide application in China: in the building trades as a treatment for both stone and wooden structures; in marine trades as a preservative and water repellant on wooden boats. It is said to have been introduced to the West by Marco Polo. From the 13th to the 19th century, tung oil had only limited use in the West. More recently, Tung oil has gained favor over linseed oil for wood finishing because it is faster drying and does not darken as much with age.

For ease of application, a solvent such as mineral spirits or citrus solvent is used. The mineral spirits is considered a toxic application while being applied, and the solvent quickly dissipates during the drying process. The citrus solvent is a natural solvent that is non toxic and does the same thing as mineral spirits. Mineral spirits and citrus solvent are used as “thinning agents” for easier applications of the Tung oil.


  • Zero VOC’s
  • All Natural means “Green”
  • Naturally polymerizing finish
  • Cures by oxidation not evaporation
  • Does not form a glossy finish no matter the number of coats
  • Form a flexible water proof finish
  • Resists abrasion and acids
  • Does not blister and peel (properly applied)
  • Does not mold like linseed oil
  • Long shelf life (will last for years, properly sealed)
  • Does not darken with time like linseed oil
  • Concentrated (thin one to one, doubles the coverage)
  • Combined with “Citrus Solvent” makes an all natural finish
  • FDA approved for food contact

Finding Tung Oil;

Tung Oil can be found on line here, or a good woodworking store such as Rockler Woodworking.


Step 1; Lightly sand the area with a 120 grit sandpaper, or oscillating orbital sander. Using a shop vac and dust cloth such as tac cloth; dust/clean the surface to remove dust and debris.

Step 2; Thin the Tung Oil 1:1, stirring the product until mixed thoroughly.

Step 3; Using a rag; dip the rag in the Tung oil and apply it to the area liberally. Making sure not to over Hand rubbed Tung Oil in a Tiny Houseapply to heavily, then rub the product into the surface being applied, and allow 10 minutes to soak into the wood.

Step 4; After about 10 to 15 minutes use old rags to rub the surface to remove excess Tung oil and weeping  of joints. Nathann is shown rubbing the excess Tung oil from the White Ash Paneling.

Step 5; Repeat step 2 and 3 although do not apply as liberally as in step 2. For high traffic areas such as floors, 2 to 4 costs are recommended for protection.

Part 2, Walnut Oil and Beeswax

Wildflower Meditation Chapel – Under Construction

The following pictures are from a client that is building a meditation retreat. We asked to provide the plans for this project and we had great fun creating them. It is always nice and feels good to see the project as it is being built. Click on the pictures to enlarge them.

Meditation Chapel Site in Southern California

Meditation Chapel Site in Southern California

Meditation Chapel Floor Framework

Meditation Chapel Floor Framework

Meditation Chapel Wall and Roof Framing

Meditation Chapel Wall and Roof Framing

More Meditation Chapel Wall and Roof Framing

More Meditation Chapel Wall and Roof Framing

Side View Meditation Chapel Wall and Roof Framing

Side View Meditation Chapel Wall and Roof Framing

Tiny House After a Storm

A Tiny House at the start of a sunny dat

This is what greeted me this morning as I turned back to look at the Wildflower, visitor tracks, feeders and a beautiful sunny day at the cabin. I am Blessed!

The “Denali” Floor Plan

8×24′ with 14*8 loft above with fold up aluminum deck. This cabin has a main floor bedroom! This home is fully insulated, even the floors with John Mansvill Foam Insulation Board, Energy efficient Anderson Silverline Windows, single panel French door,18 Gauge steel frame, LP OSB wall and floor sheathings, Tyvek house wrap, energy star electrical boxes with basic electrical package, Pro-Rib Steel 29 gauge panel – Emerald Green – Energy Star rated, Trex Decking (recycled plastic and wood fibers) ” Cedar Valley Shingle Siding, RS Fir Soffit and Fascia, Oak 1×6 Character Grade end matched paneling, oak flooring, energy star electrical boxes,  Fiberglass shower, and low VOC paints, Acrylic caulks.

Options available are;

Wavy Edge Cedar Wainscoat w/Cedar Valley Option
9/16 Cedar Lap Siding
T&G 1×6 WP4 Soffits
White Ash End Matched T&G Character Grade Option
Pine Paneling T&G 1×6 WP4 Option
Cedar Paneling T&G 1×6 WP4 Option
Newport Propane Fireplace Heater P12000
Solar Tripod
Incinerator Electric Incinerating Toilet
Holding Tank for Potable Water

Felling Trailer Option

Call for Pricing

Does not include cabinetry, appliances, or freight/shipping

At Tiny Green Cabins, we believe that our customers needs and desires are priority and we are here to serve you. We will partner with you in determining the level of “green” you would like to achieve from slightly “green” to green “Green.”  For that we have a list of options to customize your Tiny Green Cabin to your preferences and comfort. For more information visit our website information page or call us today.

A $2000 deposit will reserve your production date for your home.  50% deposit/payment required 3 weeks prior to production date, with the 40% balance due at midpoint of production and balance due upon delivery of your Tiny Green Cabin.

Tiny Green Cabins have many models to select from and options to make the model selected reflect your taste and desires. Since we started Tiny Green Cabins as an idea, and created a business from that idea, we also understand that what we have as a model may not fit your desires. With this understanding, we can partner with you to design a Tiny Green Cabin from your idea or thought – bringing it to form.

Save Energy and Reduce your Carbon Footprint

Check your windows

Preparing the Opening

Preparing the Opening

One of the most likely culprits for energy loss are your windows and doors.  Pay close attention to drafts, decay and/or peeling paint and operational functionality.  Drafts and increased noise means that your windows are not insulating properly and may need to be replaced.  Check for increasing hot and cold spots, and ice/frost buildup.  Windows that are not insulating properly can allow moisture into the home.

Window Sill Rot

Window Sill Rot

This moisture begins to rot the wood and may lead to water damage. The damage at the left lead to a costly repair of this wall before window installation could proceed.

Marvin Windows feature a green material called Ultrex, that resists cracking, peeling, warping and is energy efficient.

Be sure to check the caulking and weather stripping around the windows and doors.  If there are spaces, fill them in with new materials so your windows and doors are well-sealed. Caulking of windows, doors, and siding will pay for itself and is one of the best ways to reduce the energy costs of heating and cooling the home.

In Minnesota and western Wisconsin, for window and door replacement and all of your remodeling needs check out Redeeming Restorations of St Paul, MN or RRR Construction of Minneapolis, MN

Living Simply

The Location

The Location

Your Lake Sunset

Your Lake Sunset

For several years, my son and his friends have taken a week to 10 days and gone into the wilderness via canoes and portages. I have listened to the stories, of cold water swims, walleyes and northern in abundance, fish fries every night, awesomely beautiful country, drinking water from lakes so clear you can see the bottom, quiet serene nights around a campfire, and the big one that got away. This year, I was invited as a guest, to take the trip and experience the best that life has to offer. This trip was to be my 1st in more than 20 years into the BWCA. The invite was extended last January and the plans and routes were laid out then. I was not expected to bring any food – that is another story for later – or any gear except for personal stuff. It was agreed at this time, since I was the odd man out, I could bring my newly acquired kayak. However, to keep in mind, that the 1st day, we would be canoeing 20 miles! I had to keep up and not slow the group down.

The cast of characters for this trip are Nate – my middle son, Jenny – Nates’ wife, Larry – Jenny’s dad, Chris – Jenny’s brother, and I. Larry makes these trips several times a summer and makes frequent trips to remote Boundary Waters of Minnesota and Canada. We left White Bear Lake on Sunday at noon, stopping for needed refreshments and a late lunch in Virginia, MN. We stayed for the night in International Falls, Mn. as our permits for Quetico Provincial Park were issued for entrance the next day. That evening we spent browsing the town, casing out the border crossing, and the many businesses located there. Nate was a little concerned as I pulled over by the river and watched what was happening at the border.

After crossing the border on early Monday, we stopped at the local bait store for bait and then we made a quick 2 hour drive to the launch area. The scenery was awesome, with many Rock Cairns along the north side of the road and long desolate areas of tall pines and endless skies. Finally we turned off the main road onto a dirt backwoods road and after following it for 30 minutes we arrived at the initial portage site to Beaverhouse Lake. Our paddling expedition started at the Beaverhouse Lake Portage, on BeaverhouseLake – commencing with a ½ mile portage over a rain slick trail from the previous nights rain and then a 3 mile paddle to the ranger cabin for the permits and licenses. After a brief rest, and snacks we then we paddled onto Lake Quetico by portaging around a water fall/rapids. These falls are an old sluice and dam at an area that was used to control logs coming down the river many years ago. There is a 50+ foot change in elevation between the lakes.

Paddling the Lakes

Paddling the Lakes

We paddled 20 miles the 1st day with 2 portages, with one being at the falls, where I side slipped in the kayak and took on water, so I was wet for most of this days paddling. I remarked to Larry, that I liked my little sportsman kayak better as it was more stable in the water. It was shorter and had a wider beam which added to stability. However, the place I purchased my sportsman’s kayak from said I would never make it with that boat on this trip and keep up with canoes at the same time. In their words, I would need an evacuation helicopter standing by to retrieve me from the wilderness with a cardiac arrest. They advised what I really needed was longer touring kayak that would carry more gear and travel on lakes faster. The one I borrowed on a trial basis was a 17’ touring German kayak weighing in at 65lbs and had a narrow beam, 2 storage compartments and a rudder. However, this one also really rolled and pitched with shallow waves, and I had to literally lock my feet into the stirrups, my knees into the knee braces and become “one” with the kayak. I could see myself doing a wet exit at any moment – which would have been my 1st. It was a real balancing act to maintain ones balance, much like being parking ones butt on a balance beam and trying to paddle while the beam was rocking & rolling back and forth. It was also quite tiring, and my abs were getting a good workout! Larry’s one comment was that he would never even get into one and why would someone do something as crazy as that. A kayak just appeared too dangerous, unstable, and difficult to use to really enjoy on a excursion or expedition.

The German made kayak weighed in twice as much as one of the canoes, so any portaging made the kayak a challenge to do alone. The kayak did have one redeeming feature, in Larry’s opinion – it was RED! It brought some needed color to the abundance of greens and blues of the Canadian wilderness. However, the kayak is as close to getting in the water, without actually being in it. It brings a new perspective and dimension to a someone that likes being in nature. However, the first day, I questioned the wisdom of making this trip with this kayak, as in the past, all my previous experiences were canoeing off the Gunflint trail, set up camp, with maybe 1 portage, and generally fish and be lazy for a week. This trip would add a new dimension to my experience as it would involve a new campsite almost each night with a lot of paddling, portaging,and exertion – and the rest of the team would have to carry my gear in their canoes. However I did not know I had a “hells portage” ahead of me.

That night we made camp on a scenic overlook of Lake Quetico. We used the canoes as tables and set up our tents.

Dual Purpose - like a tiny house

Dual Purpose - like a tiny house

The canoes served a dual purpose, just like space in a tiny house serves. The sink serves as a kitchen sink and lavatory sink, and tables fold out of walls, and about the only thing that is normal size, may be the lap top computer.

This nights dinner fare was grilled steaks, fried potatoes and onions, green beans, and for dessert – pan brownies.

During the night, I was summoned out of my sleep by rain pelting the tent, and flashes of lightning illuminating the dark shadows inside of my tent. My immediate thought, was one of having to kayak tomorrow in this downpour as I drifted back to sleep.

On Tuesday, it rained all day and we decided to stay put for this day, so we just spent time in our tents reading, playing cards, telling stories, and napping. The lack of movement create a glorious “backache” day, but I did get some good reading accomplished. Besides food and trail mixes, I always bring a book or two and Karen Casey’s newest book, “Change your Mind and Your Life Will Follow,” was the main reading material which was a very enjoyable and enlightening read into thought processes. Even though I napped frequently during the day I actually slept that night well. The sleeping must have been helped with the steady pattering of rain on the tent that finally soothed me to dreamland. The book and reading it, made me realize that I needed to change my mind on this trip and enjoy each day as a new experience. The dinner fare for this evening was grilled pork chops, hash browns, corn muffins and dessert was candy bars.

Distance to cover

Distance to cover

Wednesday, we awoke to a bright and dry day; had a quick breakfast of oatmeal as we had territory to cover to get to the next campsite by dark. We had lunch of fruits, trail mix, etc, while paddling and late afternoon we found a nice campsite for the evening. It was on an isthmus between Lake Quetico and Jean Lake. While kayaking this lake, I discovered that the rudder to the kayak was not working properly, and with any wind at all, the tracking could be challenging. While the canoes could maintain a straight course, I would find myself being blown to new destinations which would require more paddling to keep up. At this campsite, I caught my 1st fish of the trip and then Nate caught the same fish a hour later. We could tell by the same scars on its back. At this point we were practicing catch and release, as our fish dinners were scheduled for Thursday into a remote lake. The beauty of the area, the clean clear crisp air, the clear star lit nights made one feel that we were the 1st to come this way. We did not see a camp squirrel or Canadian Jay the entire trip. We were too remote for even them. The dinner fare for this night was hot dogs, baked beans, and candy bars. After dinner, we would paddle out to the middle of the lake, hold our canteens and water jugs upside down and push them down into the water, about a foot, turn them over, and allow them to fill with lake water for drinking and cooking. Each evening this scene would be repeated for the next days water supply.

Thursday morning, we headed out from Jean Lake to Your Lake, and that had some short portages and 5 beaver dams to cross over plus the added test of 1 long portage thru a marsh. At the last of the beaver dams, we found it had been torn down with just a small stream running thru what was once a huge beaver pond. I ventured forth with my kayak, and found I could go quite a distance, however any turning around or getting out was not an option. The bottom was mud as far down as I could push the paddle, and our only choice was to keep going. We finally managed to get far enough upstream where we spotted a good place to get out and portage the rest of the way. We carefully made our way to this area of solid ground and rocks and happily saw our next lake less than 100 feet away. At this long narrow lake I choose to paddle the opposite shore from the rest of the group. About 20 minutes into the this lake, I could hear Nate yelling at me to be careful as there was a moose with calf in the water just around the bend from me, and my course would take me right onto them. The cow and the calf plunged into the reeds and underbrush by the time I made it there and I never saw them. However, Nate managed to get a few pictures of them.

Being surrounded by the forest colors of the many hues of greens, the pale blue sky, the silence of the wilderness except for our “swoosh” of the paddles breaking water,  without any other human contact the whole trip made me realize what the explorers may have experienced when the area was 1st discovered. I did not miss my career, the work, the hustle, the stress, phones, faxes, firefighting, etc while there. The main item that I became aware of; is that in a one man kayak, one is pretty much alone, and that means all of the work of paddling is solo; another noted item is the lack of being able to share discoveries with some one significant; or share the “ahah” moments, etc. as they are encountered. By the time we got to Your Lake, my socks were black from the mud of portages, and my pants were black to the knees, and I am sure I also needed to bathe. However, I choose not to, as my idea of ice cold lake water except for drinking, was not for bathing or doing a “wet exit!.

At all of the portages, we wore our Buzz Off shirts and baby blue hats, as they kept the mosquitoes, ticks, and flies at bay. The bugs would fly/hover around our legs and feet, but would stay away from our upper bodies. The ticks were also out at the portages, and it would be common to remove 30 to 40 from our clothes, and the lead person would often find in excess of 50 -70 friends. At the end of this day, we found an island that faced west and we nicknamed it Turtle Island. As we paddled to the island, the sun was just starting to set. There was deer along the shore, and the high cirrus clouds were turning oranges and purple from the setting sun.

The turtles were out in numbers laying eggs along the south western shoreline, and where we were camped, was evidently a major place for laying. We even had a large snapping turtle come up and visit us. We stayed at this campsite for 2 nights, and the next day the rest of the group went out – Friday – for more fishing. I decided to stay in camp, to read, do some journaling, and fish from shore. Nate in pursuit of the illusive walleye went along and swamped his canoe and was quite soaked and disgruntled. They had to do some major portaging again over beaver dams, and he was all muddy from it. For myself – I was content – I fished from shore, caught more walleye than they did, and even though I broke my pole on a larger fish, staying in camp was worth it. I even finished the Casey book and started another book. A Western!

The next day, Saturday, we were up early and had figured we had 9 portages to do, plus a lot of lake to cover to make it back to our vehicles by evening. I had seen the high cirrus clouds coming in on Friday, and told everyone we had better high tail it, or face some wet weather. We started early that day, pushed our limits and encountered what is called “Hell’s Portage.” That is a 1 mile portage that is challenging for anyone to do – even for someone in good physical condition – of going over hills, thru mosquitto infested swamps and tick laden bogs across corduroy logs trails, trudging thru rock laden streams and muddy potholes, for what seemed an eternity. I miss-stepped at one point thru the logs and fell with the kayak on top of me landing on my back in a small stream. I kept thinking as I lay there that I was hearing someone run towards me, but after a minute or two, I realized it was just my heart pounding instead of someone running thru the woods. This was a day of trials, gifts, opportunities, and this was just another high point to that day. After this portage, Nate remarked, he had never seen so many portages in 1 trip before! We had to make 2 to 3 trips at each portage of canoes, kayak, backpacks along with miscellaneous gear and when we got done with this portage, I was beat, exhausted, and hurting. And the kayak was mine alone to portage and I felt the weight more with each step!

Then we put in and continued across Badwater Lake. The wind started to pick up, and since my rudder on the kayak had broken earlier in the trip, I found I had little control unless I was going into the wind or vice versa. At one point, I was being tossed around by the waves in the middle of the lake, and finally decided to head for shore with the wind at my back. This was to be repeated later on Beaverhouse Lake with more wind. On Beaverhouse Lake and the final leg of the trip we had decided to cut across the middle of the lake as it would be a shorter route. By this time, the wind had picked up some more, and the kayak was a concern to me. While the waves beat up against the canoe sides, the kayak being lower in the water would allow the waves to crash over. It made me uneasy. Upon reaching almost to the center of the lake the thought of a “wet water exit” was the paramount fear I was facing. After being tossed around as I was trying to run at right angles to the wind, that fear was being heightened, and I yelled at Larry that I was changing my tactics, and would be making a run with the wind towards shore. Larry, looked at me, and said that the waves would be worse along the shore, and I replied that it was now all psychological battles and mind set now. I would feel better being closer to shore battling the waves, than be out in the middle of a big lake. At least, I could wet exit and swim for shore if need be. But, when I got there, that also turned into a challenge, but with the shore line on my right about 30 – 40 feet away, I just gritted my teeth and went for it with the thinking that what will be – will be, and that I was in my right and perfect place; reminding myself that we are never given anything that we can not handle. As Caleb, my youngest son has said, if it is time to go, he will face it head on, and off I went to face a fear of mine. After about 20 -30 minutes of battling the surf, I made it around the corner of an isthmus and found a calm spot to regain my wits, sanity, and calmness..

After that it was a quick run with the wind at my back and onto the final portage and our trucks on solid ground. At this final portage to load our vehicles, I decided to portage the lightweight canoe, which I grabbed before Larry could, and it felt like a feather compared to the kayak. No wonder Larry could run a portage as I struggled with my kayak. That night the storms moved in and we were happy to be in civilization at a motel with showers, a comfortable mattress, AC and someone else cooking for us – The Moose Restaurant. I was also thinking that next time, I am also going to have a super lightweight canoe and stay the hell away from “hells portage!”

Tiny Green Sheds

Tiny Green Cabins does Sheds

Tiny Green Cabins does Sheds

Tiny Green Cabins Sheds are built with the same exacting care as a Tiny Green Cabin. They are built to sit nested on the ground in your backyard or lake lot. They come unfinished on the interior without electrical so the “do it yourself” person can finish at their own pace and choice of material.

Size is 8×10

This shed sells for $4,999.00

Building the Breathe Easy

Click on the picture to get more of the story….

Dare to Dream

I learned this, at least, by my experiment;
that if one advances confidently in the direction of his dreams,
and endeavors to live the life which he has imagined,
he will meet with a success unexpected in common hours.
from the “Conclusion” to Walden by Henry David Thoreau

For several years in talking to my sons, I have talked about pursuing their dreams, and yet found myself unable to take the risk for myself. The weekend of Nov 13, 2008, at a retreat in Northern Minnesota on Gull Lake the idea and dream surfaced and an active discussion followed. This time, it went further than dreams and idle talk, but actually moved into a mind mapping of the idea, and before long we had on paper given some hard reasons to follow the dream.

We listed the advantages and disadvantages to pursuing the venture of building small houses, tiny cabins, tiny homes, and tiny houses. The experience side started with the ability to design small house plans and cabin plans, then use those small house plans to build the actual small house and tiny green cabins.

For Experience; I do have 35 years of carpentry and management experience in building small and large houses of all types and styles; managing crews, design teams, manufacturing departments, and improvement teams for businesses.

Another advantage is the location of property that is owned on a busy highway, along with a large shop building to build small houses and tiny cabins, and a display area on highway 61 for showing off the completed tiny cabins. The highway has a traffic count of 10,000 hits a day and projected to 25,000 within 5 years. The potential is there for a lot of growth.

The downside of all the advantages is the state of the economy, locally and nationally. And if a business makes it in this environment, it will definitely be strategically ready when the business climate recovers. And it will recover!

Part of the planning of the business, besides drawing small house plans, and building a model of a tiny cabin, is having a network of support in the venture, be it financial, emotional or mentoring. Rev. Nancy Herrick from Our Spiritual Center , Elizabeth Traff, Carol Austin from Cross Dental Care, Daisy Mckinley, Jerry Wescott, and Bill Schmidt along with many others provided emotional support, guidance, and a open forum to bounce ideas around with. I thank each of these special friends for being along with me on this journey.

This blog, will follow that dream, and currently, the business plan is almost completed and we are enhancing the website. Thinking funding would be limited, there was a concern, until a friend who believed in the dream offered funding to get a model built. I know this dream is taking hold and all I need to do is follow the steps of the dream and hold onto the trolley strap for the ride.  Italics from Wayne Dyers book, “Power of Intention

Cost of Materials for Thoreau’s House (from Walden)

  • Board’s: $8.03 1/2, mostly shanty boards
  • Refuse shingles for roof and sides: $4.00
  • Laths: $1.25
  • Two second-hand windows with glass: $2.43
  • One thousand old brick: $4.00
  • Two casts of lime: $2.40. That was high.
  • Hair: $0.31. More than I needed
  • Mantle-tree iron: $0.15
  • Nails: $3.90
  • Hinges and screws: $0.14
  • Latch: $0.10
  • Chalk: $0.01
  • Transportation: $1.40. I carried a good part on my back.
  • In all: $28.12 1/2

    These are all the material excepting the timber, stones and sand, which I claimed by squatter’s right.